Kos, the island of Hippocrates or the garden of the Aegean, is the 3rd biggest island (295 sqm2.).) of the Dodecanese complex, and lies at the southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, between Kalymnos and Nisyros. It is a flat island with only one range, really green, with a mild climate which, in combination with the many sunny months throughout the year and the splendid beaches, makes it an international cosmopolitan tourist destination. The population exceeds 25.000 residents, the majority of whom are involved in the tourist industry; a smaller percentage in agriculture, livestock-farming and fishery.
The island of Kos is divided in three Municipalities, the municipality of Kos, the municipality of Dikeos and the municipality of Iraklidis. In Kos, one can enjoy a splendid combination of the old and new. Tradition, history of thousands of years, natural beauties, historical monuments, well organised beaches, modern shops and excellent hotel facilities coexist harmoniously leaving the visitor with the best impressions.
HISTORY OF KOS
A quick flashback helps one realise that Kos came out a winner from important invasions of other civilisations without damaging its Greek identity. Some of the names that the island has been given through the years are Meropis and Karis leading to its current name, Kos, which emanated from the daughter of King Triopas. Kos has been inhabited by Pelasjani, Karis, Leleges, Poenix and Achaei. Acording to Hormer Kos also took part in the Trojan War (1194 BC).
In the seventh century BC Kos flourishes. The cities Lalisos, Kamiros, Knidos, Lindos, Alikarnassos and Kos founded the Dorian Exapolis, a holy but also political alliance. During the Peloponnisiakos war (431-404 BC), Kos forms alliance with Athens. In 333 BC., Kos forms an alliance with Alexander the Great and thus the Persians are driven out of the island. During the reign of Constantine the Great, in 300 AD., Kos is subjected to Byzantium. In 1523 AD., it is occupied by the Turks. This is an occupation of 390 years of slavery and hardship. in 1912 the Italians occupy the island suppressing its people in a fascist way. After the Italian Occupation, in 1943, during the second World War, the Germans occupy the island, but after being defeated they withdrew, leaving the Dodecanese to the British.
From the Ancient Classic period, the Byzantine and Medieval Era until the Turkish and Italian Occupations, Kos resists the passing of time having gained obvious and indelible monuments, which many tourists visit every year. Monuments such as the Asklepion, the Castle of Nerantzia, the ancient Market, the Ancient Conservatoire, the ancient gym "Xisto", the Casa Romana and more modern buildings, such as the Prefecture, the Municipal Market and Town Hall